Glossary of Carpet Terms

Discussion in 'Carpet Q&A' started by Jim McClain, Dec 7, 2007.

  1. Don Benham

    Don Benham Quality Control/Service Managr Charter Member

    There are gonna be real regional differences involved in these definitions.

    For instance, I've heard the following terms used for steps shot under the nose: New York, Hollywood, California Cap, Chicago, Upholstered, Contoured, French Cap.

    I see two reasons for this, 1-Regional difference. When I worked in Budffalo we called it Caifornia Cap and Upholstered. I knew installers that used the terms French Cap or Hollywood Style. When I came to Virginia, people kept talking about New York steps.

    The second reason for the difference is perhaps a slight missuse of terms by an older installer teaching terms to his apprentices.

    I guess what I'm saying is maybe footnotes would be helpful for some terms to avoid confusion.


    Don
     
  2. spectrum

    spectrum New Member

    in michigan we or I have always known stairs as( cap & skirt ) for shot under nose. cap is the tread, skirt is the riser. water fall for stanard step,
     
  3. Daris Mulkin

    Daris Mulkin The One and Only Charter Member I Support TFP Senior Member

    Wwelcome aboard spectrum. Where in Michigan? I'm outside Flint 10 miles east.

    Daris
     
  4. Jim Dandy

    Jim Dandy Mike Rowe eat your heart out! Charter Member

    This use to be on the web from a cleaning site. I'm pretty sure it's not there anymore. I've had a copy for atleast 8 years.
    I also have another glossary but it's a very large file. Let me know if you want me to upload it somehow.
    Here Goes! The first one. I also have them for adhesives, wood and resilient.
    A
    ACRYLIC
    A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of a substance of at least 85% weight of acrylonitrile units. Spun yarns from acrylic, aesthetics similar to wool.
    ADHESIVE
    A substance which dries to a film capable of holding materials together by surface attraction.
    ANTIMICROBIAL CARPET
    Carpet chemically treated to reduce the growth of common bacteria, fungi, yeast, mold, and mildew.
    ANTISTATIC
    The ability of a carpet system to dissipate an electrostatic charge before it reaches the threshold of human sensitivity.
    ATTACHED CUSHION
    A cushioning material, such as foam, rubber, urethane, etc., adhered to the backing fabric side of a carpet to provide additional dimensional stability, thickness, and padding.
    AVERAGE PILE YARN WEIGHT
    Mass per unit area of the pile yarn including buried portions of the pile yarn. In the U.S. it is usually expressed as ounces per square yard.
    AXMINSTER CARPET
    Carpet woven on a Axminster loom. Pile tufts are individually inserted from varied colored yarns arranged on spools. This process makes it possible to produce carpet and rugs of complex designs with many colors, such as Oriental design rugs.
    B
    BACKING
    Materials (fabrics or yarns) comprising the back of the carpet as opposed to the carpet pile or face.
    Primary Back - In tufting, a woven or nonwoven fabric in which the pile yarn is inserted by the tufting needles. Usually, woven or nonwoven polypropylene for carpet, and often, cotton duck for scatter rugs.
    Secondary Back - Fabric laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce and increase dimensional stability. Usually, woven jute or woven or nonwoven polypropylene.
    Backings of Woven Carpet - are the 'construction yarns' comprising chain warp, stuffer warp, and shot or fill which are interwoven with the face yarn during the fabric formation.
    BACK SEAMS
    Installation seams made with the carpet turned over or face down. Opposite of 'face seams' made with the carpet face up. (Both are on the back of the carpet)
    BCF
    Abbreviation for bulked continuous filament. Continuous strands of synthetic fiber formed into yarn bundles of a given number of filaments and texturized to increase bulk and cover. Texturizing changes the straight filaments into kinked or curled configurations.
    BEAM
    Large, horizontal cylinders or spools. Warp yarns are wound on beams and located on line in back of the weaving or tufting operation.
    BEARDING
    Long fiber fuzz on carpet caused by fiber snagging and inadequate anchorage.
    BERBER
    A carpet constructed with coarse yarns having randomly spaced flecks of color against a background of a base color.
    BINDING
    A band or strip of fabric sewn over a carpet edge to protect, strengthen, or decorate the edge.
    BLEEDING
    Transfer of fiber dyes from carpet or other fabrics by a liquid, usually water, with subsequent redepositing on other fibers.
    BLEND
    A mixture of two or more fibers or yarns.
    BOBBIN
    A spool-like device made of various materials, shapes, and constructions with a head at one or both ends and a hole through it's length, or barrel, for placement on a spindle or skewer. It is used to hold yarn for spinning, weaving, or sewing.
    BONDED URETHANE CUSHION( RE-BOND PAD)
    A carpet cushion mad from urethane trim, generated from urethane foam product manufacture, which has been granulated and and bonded to form a porous foam material and fabricated into foam sheets. Frequently used as a residential cushion.
    BRAIDED
    Reversible oval or round rugs produced from braided strips of new or used material.
    BREAKING STRENGTH
    The ability or capacity of a material to withstand the ultimate tensile load or force required to rupture.
    BROADLOOM
    A term used to denote carpet produced in widths wider than six feet.
    BUCKLING
    A condition of wrinkling, bubbling, or ridging of carpet after installation. In a stretch-in installation, it may be due to improper stretching. In a glue-down installation it may be caused by insufficient or improper adhesive. Changes in humidity and temperature sometimes affect the severity.
    BURLING
    A hand-tailoring operation to remove any knots and loose ends, insert missing tufts of surface yarns, and otherwise check the condition of the fabric. A repair operation on worn or damaged carpet is called reburling
    C

    CARPET
    All textile floor coverings not designated as rugs.
    CARPET CUSHION
    A term used to describe any kind of material placed under carpet to provide softness and adequate support when it is walked upon. Carpet cushion provides a softer feel underfoot. It usually provides acoustical benefits and longer wear life for the carpet. In some cases, the carpet cushion is attached to the carpet when it is manufactured. Also referred to as 'lining,' 'padding,' or 'underlay,' although 'carpet cushion' is the preferred term.
    CARPET MODULES
    Carpet packaged as squares, generally 18 inches (457 by 457mm), with or without attached cushion backing. Also refered to as 'carpet tiles'.
    CHAIN
    The binder warp yarn that works over and under the filling yarns of the carpet
    Axminster loom- refers to the endless chain that carries the tube frames.
    Dobby loom - refers to the endless chain of pattern bar selectors.
    CHAIN BINDERS
    Yarns running warpwise (lengthwise) in the back of a woven interlock carpet, binding construction yarns.
    COMBINATION
    A term which refers to yarns or fabrics
    A combination yarn is composed of two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twists;e.g., one yarn may have a high twist and the other, little or no twist.
    A combination fabric is one which uses the above yarns.
    COMMERCIAL MATCHING
    Matching of colors within acceptable tolerances mutually agreed upon by the buyer and seller.
    CONSTRUCTION
    Carpet construction is defined by stating the manufacturing method (tufted, woven,etc.) and the final arrangement of materials achieved by following specifications.
    CONTINUOUS DYEING
    Process of dyeing carpet in a continuous production line, rather than in batch lots. Continuous dyeing equipment flows on dyestuff, as distinguished from submerging carpet, as in separate dye becks.
    CONTINUOUS FILAMENT
    Continuous strands of synthetic fibers extruded in yarn form without the need for spinning, which natural fibers and synthetic staple fibers require for yarn formation.
    COTTON FIBER
    A unicellular, natural fiber composed of cellulose. The fibers cloth the seeds of an erect, freely branching tropical plant (cotton plant). in carpet, its use is primarily for warp yarns in woven carpet. Today, it is seldom used as a face fiber.
    COUNT
    A number identifying yarn size or weight per unit length or vice - versa depending on the particular system being used.
    Count of fabrics is indicated by the number of warp ends and filling ends per inch.
    COVER
    Degree to which the underlying structure is concealed by the face yarn.
    CREEL
    A rack or framework designed to hold yarns so that ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling.
    CREELING
    The process of mounting yarn packages on the package holder of the creel.
    CRIMP
    In fiber, a nonlinear configuration, such as a sawtooth, zig-zag, or random curl relative to the fiber axis. In woven fabrics, nonlinear yarn configurations caused by three dimensional displacements such as the zig-zagging of warp yarn over the fill yarn. Most synthetic fibers, both staple and filament, used in carpets are crimped. Fiber crimp increases bulk and cover and facilitates interlocking of staple fibers in spun yarns.
    CROCKING
    Term used to describe excess color rubbing off as the result of improper dye penetration, fixation, or selection.
    CROSS DYED
    Multi colored effects produced in a fabric with fibers of different dye affinities.
    CROSS SEAMS
    Seams made by joining the ends of carpet together.(Across the width of the goods)
    CROSS SECTION
    The shape of an individual filament or fiber when cut at right angles to it's axis. Manufactured fibers used for carpet may have various shapes including round, pentlobal, as well as hollow varieties.
    CRUSH BANDS
    Withwise marks in a roll of carpet due to flattening of the pile from compression.
    CUSHION-BACK CARPET
    A carpet having a cushioning lining, padding, or underlay material as an integral part of it's backing. Same as attached-cushion carpet.
    CUSTOM TUFTED
    Carpets or rugs in which pile yarns are manually tufted with hand machines or by narrow-width tufting machines.
    CUT
    A length of carpet cut from a full roll to fill an order.
    CUT PILE
    A fabric in which the face is composed of cut ends of pile yarn.
    D
    DEAD YARN
    The pile yarn in a Wilton carpet which remains hidden in the backing structure when not forming a pile tuft.
    DEEP DYE FIBERS
    Modified synthetic fibers with increased dye affinity relative to regular dye fibers. By combining deep dye fibers with regular dye fibers, a two color or two toned effect can be achieved within one dye bath.
    DEFLECTED NEEDLE
    A needle in the tufting machine that is pushed aside by a warp end in the backing cloth causing a streak or "grinning" running lengthwise because of off-standard tuft spacing across the width. The real mechanism of most so-called needle deflection is the pushing aside of backing fabric warp yarns by tufting needles during the tuft insertion. When the needles withdraw,warp yarns move back to their original positions, thus pushing tuft rows off gauge and creating wide gaps between them.
    DELAMINATION
    Separation of the secondary backing or attached cushion from the primary backing of the carpet.
    DELAMINATION STRENGTH
    Force required to remove secondary backing adhered to a finished carpet.
    DELUSTERED FIBERS
    Synthetic fibers in which brightness or reflectivity is reduced, usually by incorporation of a percent of white pigment such as titanium dioxide. Fiber producers' designations include dull, and semibright, whereas bright fibers are nondelustered.
    DENIER
    System for expressing linear density, equal to the mass in grams per 9000 meters of yarn, filament, fiber, or other textile strand. Denier is a direct numbering system - the higher the denier, the larger the yarn or fiber.
    DENSITY/AVERAGE PILE
    The weight of pile yarn in a unit volume of carpet expressed in ounces per cubic yard is given by the formula
    D= W x 36
    T
    In which D is density, W is pile yarn weight in ounces per square yard, and T is pile thickness in inches
    DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
    Ability of a fabric to retain it's original size and shape; may be brought about by chemical treatment or mechanical means; e.g., a secondary backing adds dimensional stability to carpet.
    DOPE DYED FIBER
    SEE: SOLUTION DYED FIBER
    DOUBLE BACK
    Woven or nonwoven fabric laminated to the back of carpet with latex or other adhesive. Double-backed carpet has enhanced dimensional stability and strength. See Secondary Backing
    DOUBLE GLUE DOWN
    An installation method whereby the carpet cushion is first adhered to the floor with an adhesive, and the carpet is then adhered to the cushion by an adhesive.
    DROP MATCH
    A pattern in printed, high-low, cut-loop, or figured carpet which repeats diagonally. Each corresponding pattern element drops down a certain distance, usually a half pattern repeat in length, instead of simply repeating horizontally across the width as in set match.
    DRY COMPOUND CLEANER
    A carpet cleaning preparation consisting of absorbent granules impregnated with dry cleaning fluids, detergents, and other cleaners. The dry powder is sprinkled on the carpet, worked into the pile with a brush, left to absorb soil for a short time, then removed with the absorbed soil by vacuuming.
    DRY FOAM
    A detergent solution containing only a small amount of water. It is mechanically worked into the surface of the carpet, and the loose soil is removed by a vacuum.
    DRY ROT
    A condition caused by attack by micro-organisms on fibers, textiles, carpets, or other materials, characterized by less strength and integrity. Attack on carpet backings permits carpet to break and tear easily. Natural materials such as jute are susceptible, whereas, polypropylene and most other synthetics are resistant.
    DUTCHMAN
    Installer's term for a narrow strip seamed onto standard-width carpet to fit oddly dimensioned areas. Proper planning will minimize the need for this practice.
    DYE OR DYESTUFF
    A highly colored substance capable of permanent physical or chemical attachment to textile fibers; coloration of fibers occurs upon attachment of small quantities. Most dyes are applied from water solutions or dispersions.
    DYE BECK
    A large vat for piece dying carpet by immersion in aqueous solutions of dyes and chemicals. Fitted with a reel for circulating carpet in and out of the dye liquor, inlets for steam and water, drains, and temperature controls.
    DYEING
    Coloring fibers, yarns, carpet or other materials by addition or incorporation of small amounts (usually one percent or less) of highly colored materials known as dyes or pigments.
    E
    ELECTROSTATIC FLOCKING
    A method used for producing flocked fabrics, including flocked carpet. Flocking consists of attaching short lengths of fibers to fabric substrates with adhesives. In electrostatic flocking, precision cut fibers are aligned in an electrostatic field perpendicular to the substrate, thus creating a plush-like surface.
    END
    1) An individual strand of yarn. 2) A roll end, a short length of carpet, or a remnant.
    EXTENDED LENGTH
    The length of pile yarn in one running inch in tufted carpet. Sometimes called take-up.
    F
    FACE SEAMS
    Sewn or cemented seams made without turning the carpet over or face down. They are used during installations when back seaming is impossible.
    FACE WEIGHT
    SEE Average Pile Yarn Weight
    FADEOMETER
    A laboratory device for determining the effects of light on the properties of yarns, fibers, fabrics, carpet, plastic, and other materials. It uses a standard light source to simulate approximately the spectrum of sunlight. Generally used for measuring fade resistance of carpet colors, which are rated according to the number of units exposure required to produce visible loss of color.
    FADING
    Loss of color. Caused by actinic radiation, such as sunlight or artificial light; atmospheric gasses, including ozone, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfice; cleaning and bleaching chemicals, such as sodium hypoclorite and other household and industrial products; chlorine chemicals for swimming pools; and other factors. Commercial installations in areas where such exposures occur require extreme care in selection of colorfast carpet.
    FASTNESS
    Retention of color by carpet or other materials, usually with reference to specific exposures, e.g., lightfastness and washfastness. Dyestuff, fiber type, and dyeing method influence the ability of colored carpet and fabrics to withstand the effects of color destroying agents.
    FELTING
    A nonwoven fabric formation process comprising entanglement of fibers by mechanical or other means. The product is called felt. Felts made by needle entanglement of solution dyed fibers, such as polypropylene, are used as outdoor carpet. Unlike weaving and tufting, felting does not employ yarns, but converts fiber directly to fabric.
    FIBER
    Substance, either natural or man-made, which forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile structures. Further characterized as having a length at least 100 times its diameter or width. Useful textile fibers have high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to heat, light, chemicals, and abrasives.
    FIBER CUSHION
    Term used to describe separate carpet cushion made of needle-felted animal hair, jute,other fibers, or fiber blends. Some are rubberized and may have one or two rubber faces.
    FILAMENT
    A Single continuous strand of natural or synthetic fiber.
    FILLER
    A low cost material used for extending rubber, plastic, or other polymers. Fillers are generally powders of very small particle size. Carpet latex laminating compounds and foams contain large amounts of fillers. The most common filler in carpet latex is finely powdered calcium carconate, often called 'whiting' produced by grinding limestone.
    FILLING YARN
    In weaving, any yarn running across the width of the fabric perpendicular to the warp yarns. In woven carpet, filling yarns are part of the group of construction yarns which also include chain and stuffer warp and form the backing. Woven carpet fill and chain warp yarns interface to secure the pile yarns, usually, are cotton, polypropylene, fiberglass, or similar materials.
    FILM YARN
    Yarn produced by slitting extruded films into narrow strips. Slit-film, polypropylene yarns are woven into fabrics used as primary backings in tufted carpets.
    FINISHING
    A collective term denoting final processing of carpet and textiles subsequent to tufting, weaving, and dyeing. Carpet finishing processes include shearing, brushing, application of secondary backing, application of attached foam cushion, application of soil retardant and anti-static chemicals, back beating, steaming, and others.
    FLOCKED CARPET
    Carpet composed of short, chopped fiber or flock which is adhered, usually by electrostatic process, to a base fabric, resulting in a short pile material with a velvety texture. SEE Electrostatic Flocking
    FLOORING RADIANT PANEL
    Laboratory testing device for measuring the critical radiant flux of horizontally mounted floor covering systems exposed to flaming ignition source in a graded radiant heat energy environment.
    FLUFFING
    Appearance on carpet surface of loose fiber fragments left during manufacture; not a defect, but a characteristic which disappears after carpet use and vacuuming. Sometimes called "fuzzing" or "shedding".
    FRAMES
    Racks at back of the Wilton loom holding spools from which yarns are fed into the loom. Each frame holds a separate color; thus, a 3-frame Wilton has three colors in the design.
    FREE FORM
    A floor area bound by walls and of irregular shape. Sometimes called "form-fit area."
    FRIEZE
    Pronounced - "free-zay" - a tightly twisted yarn that gives a rough, nubby appearance to carpet having this characteristic.
    FULL ROLL
    A length of carpet; roll goods usually approximately 100 foot long; also called a shipping roll by carpet manufacturers. Shipping roll standards vary and may be as short as 30 feet, depending upon carpet thickness and manufacture's quality criteria. In the United States almost all roll goods are 12 or 15 feet wide, with 12 foot predominant.
    FUZZING
    Hairy effect on fabric surface caused by fibers slipping out of yarn in either service or wet cleaning. It is sometimes correctable by shearing. Carpet of continuous filament yarn is fuzzed by filament snagging and breaking.
    G
    GAGE or GAUGE
    The distance between two needle points expressed in fractions of an inch. Applies to both knitting and tufting.
    GAUGE/PITCH
    The number of ends of surface yarn counting across the width of carpet. In woven carpet, pitch is the number of ends of yarn in 27 inches of width; e.g., 2167 divided by 27 = 8 ends per inch. In tufted carpet, gauger also means the number of ends of surface yarn per inch counting across the carpet; e.g., 1/8 pitch = 8 ends per inch. To convert gauge to pitch, multiply ends per inch by 27; e.g., 1/10 gauge is equivalent to 270 pitch. or 10 ends per inch x 27. One-eighth gauge is 8 yarn per inch x 27 = 216 pitch.
    GLUE DOWN
    An installation method whereby the carpet is adhered to the floor with an adhesive.
    GREIGE GOODS
    Pronounced "gray goods" - Undyed carpet or other textile materials.
    GRINNING
    Visibility of carpet backing through the face, often between two adjoining tuft rows. May be caused by low pile yarn weight, off-gauge tufting machine parts, tuft row deflection, inadequate blooming of pile yarn, or installation over sharp curves such as stair nosings.
    GROUND COLOR
    The backing color against which the top colors create the pattern or figure in the design.
    H
    HAND
    The tactile aesthetic qualities of carpet and textiles. Factors determining how carpet feels to the hand include pile weight, stiffness, lubricants, fiber type, and denier, density, backing, and latex.
    HEATHER
    A multicolor effect provided by blending fibers of different colors prior to spinning carpet yarn.
    HEAT SETTING
    Process for stabilization of carpet by exposure to heat. Conventional autoclave heat-setting treats yarns in relaxed skein configuration with preassurized steam, usually at temperatures in the 240-300 degree F range. The principal benefits are twist retention in piled yarns in cut-pile carpet and general stabilization of yarn configuration.
    HEAT-SET YARN
    Carpet yarns thermally stabilized to a final crimp or twist configuration so as to reduce loss of twist and bulk in service.
    HIGH DENSITY FOAM
    Attached carpet cushion made from compounded natural and/or synthetic latex foam having a minimum density of 17 pounds per cubic foot and a minimum weight of 38 ounces per square yard.
    HIGH LOW
    Multi-level carpet style combining high and low loop pile areas or high cut pile and low loop areas. The latter is also called a cut and loop style.
    HOT MELT ADHESIVE
    Thermoplastic adhesive material sometimes used for laminating secondary backing to tufted carpet. Hot melt adhesives are compounded from thermoplastic polymers and plastics. They may be melted and solidified repeatedly by application of heat.
    I
    INDOOR/OUTDOOR CARPETING
    A term synonymous with outdoor carpet.
    J
    JACQUARD
    An apparatus for a weaving loom that produces patterns from colored yarns, used for carpet and textile production. The pattern information is contained on perforated cards. The holes in the cards activate the mechanism that selects the color to be raised to the pile surface. Wilton looms have jacquard pattern devices.
    JUTE
    A natural fiber made from certain plants of the linen family, which grow in warm climates, such as those found in India and Bangladesh. Jute yarns are used for woven carpet construction (backing) yarns. Woven jute fabrics are used in tufted carpet as secondary backing.
    K
    KNEE KICKER
    A carpet installation tool consisting of a pinned plate connected to a short section of metal tubing. The end opposite the plate has a padded cushion that the installer strikes with his knee to position carpet, which is gripped by the pinned plate. In general, adequate stretching of carpet installations can not be achieved with knee kickers. A power stretcher should be used for stretching carpet during installation.
    KNITTED CARPET
    Carpet produced in a fabric formation or process by interlacing yarns in a series of connected loops. As in weaving, pile and backing are produced simultaneously. Multiple sets of needles interlace pile, backing, and stitching yarns in one operation.
    KUSTERS DYEING
    Continuous dyeing using the Kusters dye application and range. SEE Continuous Dyeing
    L
    LATEX

    A compound, consisting of either natural or synthetic rubber, used to coat the back of the carpet or rugs in order to adhere carpet components to one another. Most carpet latex consists of styrene-butadiene synthetic rubber (SBR) compounded with powdered fillers, such as calcium corbonate.
    LENO WEAVE

    A woven fabric construction in which paired warp yarns twist around one another between fill yarn picks. It is similar to woven gauze bandage construction. Leno construction renders the yarns relatively immobile within the fabric, making possible very open weaves which are relatively stable. Woven polypropylene secondary backings for tufted carpets are generally of leno weave construction.
    LEVEL LOOP

    A carpet construction in which the yarn on the face of the carpet forms a loop with both ends anchored into the carpet back. The pile loops are of substantially the same height and uncut, making a smooth and level surface.
    LINING

    See: CARPET CUSHION
    LOOM

    Machine which produces woven fabrics. In weaving, lengthwise yarns (warp) are interlaced with weft yarns (fill) by the shuttle or other devices, such as gripper or rapier.
    LOOP PILE

    Carpet style having a pile surface consisting of uncut loops. May be woven or tufted. Also called "round wire" in woven terminology.
    LOW ROWS

    A quality defect sometimes found in carpet comprised of tufts having pile heights below specification.
    LUSTER

    Brightness or sheen of fibers, yarns, carpet, or fabrics. Synthetic fibers are produced in various luster classifications including bright, semibright, semidull, and dull. Bright fibers usually are clear (have no white pigment); whereas, the duller designations have small amounts of white pigments such as titanium dioxide. Luster of finished carpet also depends upon yarn heat-setting methods, dyeing, and finishing. In high-traffic, commercial areas, duller carpet is often preferred for soil-hiding ability.
    M
    MARKERS

    Colored yarns woven into the backs of woven carpets to aid installers in achieving correct pattern match and pile direction.
    MATCH, SET, OR DROP

    Pattern match designates the arrangement and dimensions of the repeating units comprising the design of patterned carpet, including woven patterns, prints, tufted high-lows, and others. A typical pattern repeat might be 36 inches wide by 24 inches long. In set match, this rectangular pattern unit is arranged in parallel rows across the carpet width. In a half drop pattern, the start of each pattern repeat unit is transposed to the midpoint of the side of the adjacent unit. In the example, each adjacent unit starts 12 inches down the side of the neighboring one. In quarter drop match, each unit in the example would start six inches past the neighboring pattern unit's starting point. Thus, pattern repeat units in drop match repeat diagonally across the width, and in set match, they repeat straight across the width perpendicularly to the length. Pattern repeat dimensions and match are significant to specifiers and purchasing agents because they influence the amount of excess carpet (over measured area) needed in multiple width installations.
    MATTING

    Severe pile crush combined with entanglement of fibers and tufts
    MENDING

    Hand repair of carpet after tufting and weaving to replace missing tufts, remove knots, and loose ends, etc.
    METALLIC FIBER

    Synthetic fiber made of metal, metal colored plastic, or metal coated plastic, or plastic coated metal sometimes used in small amounts in carpet to dissipate static electricity, thus preventing shock.
    MILL END

    A short piece of carpet roll goods having a length less than that of a full shipping roll or short roll but more than a remnant. Quality standards differ among mills, but a mill end length specification of 9 to 20 feet is typical.
    MITER JOINT

    A junction of two pieces of carpet (or other material) at an angle. Most miter joints involve pieces at right angles to one another with their ends cut at 45 degrees to form the joint.
    MOLDING

    A wooden or plastic strip attached to the bottom of the baseboard or wall to cover the joint between the wall and the floor.
    MONOFILAMENT

    A single, continuous strand of synthetic polymer in the form of a filament large and strong enough to be used as a textile yarn.
    MORESQUE

    A distinctive textural appearance given to carpet by the use of yarns that have been twisted with other yarns of different colors or shades. Moresque yarns thus have a "barber pole" appearance. Moresque carpet in suitable colors is a good soil hider in high traffic areas.
    MULTIFILAMENT

    Synthetic yarns composed of a multiplicity of continuous fiber strands extruded together, usually, from the multiple holes of a single spinneret. Multifilament carpet yarns are texturized to increase bulk and cover and are called "bulked continuous filament" yarns or BCF yarns.
    N
    NAP

    Carpet or rug or textile pile surface.
    NARROW CARPET

    Woven carpet less than 6 feet wide, as distinguished from broadloom.
    NEEDLE

    Tufting -= An eyed needle that inserts yarns into primary backing to form tufts.
    Needle punching - Barbed felting needles that entangle and compress fiberous fleeces into needled felts, such as those used for outdoor carpet.
    Knitting- Hooked needles that form the loops of a knitted fabric.
    Axminster Weave - An eyed needle that delivers filling yarn across the loom through the warp yarn shed.
    NEEDLE LOOM

    A machine for producing needled felt fabrics, also called needle-punched fabrics, which are sometimes used as outdoor carpet. The needle loom converts fiber directly to fabric by entangling and compressing fiber batts or webs with barbed felting needles. Additional explanation is found under Needlepunch Carpet. (Note: "Needle Loom" also denotes a certain narrow weaving loom used in tape production having a needle instead of a shuttle as the fill insertion device. This has no application to carpet )
    NEEDLEPUNCH CARPET

    Carpet produced by mechanically binding with barbed needles a fiber web or fleece. Needlepunched carpet is normally made with solution-dyed polypropylene and is often used as an outdoor carpet, although it's usage in other applications is quite broad.
    NONWOVEN

    A fabric manufactured directly from fibers or filaments or from a web of fibers without the yarn preparation needed for weaving, knitting, or tufting.
    NOSING

    The front dividing line of a step, where the top of a riser joins the front of a tread.
    NYLON

    Synthetic thermoplastic of polyamide family used as a carpet face yarn in either BCF or staple yarn form. Two chemical Types, nylon-6,6 and nylon-6, are used in carpet. Nylon-6,6 is poly(hexamethylene adipamide) and nylon-6 is polycaprolactam.
    O
    OILY YARN
    Yarn containing excessive oil on its surface, usually from excessive oiling of rings on spinning and twisting machines. Although not visible during carpet manufacture, it may appear as soiled or dark lines of yarn when the carpet is in service.
    OLEFINS
    Any long chain, synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units. Polypropylene is used in carpet as both backing and as pile fiber. See Polypropylene.
    ORIENTAL RUGS
    Handwoven rugs made in the Middle East and the Orient.
    P
    PACKAGE DYED
    Yarn dyed while wound on perforated tubes or wire forms. The package dye machine forces dye liquor through the yarn in the dye package.
    PADDING - SEE: Carpet Cushion
    PATTERN
    Artistic, decorative design on the surface of carpet. It may be printed, woven with colored yarns, or sculptured in multiple pile heights.
    PATTERN STREAKS
    Visually apparent streaking in patterned carpet resulting from linear juxtaposition of pattern elements in one direction. It is not a carpet defect, but is inherent in certain designs. Contract specifiers should view rolls of carpet laid out on a floor to evaluate geometric or other patterns for this characteristic that may be objectionable in long corridors and other large areas, but not visible in small rooms.
    PICKS PER INCH
    In woven carpet and fabric, the number of insertions per inch of length.
    PIECE DYED
    Carpet dyed by immersion onto an aqueous dye bath.
    PIGMENT
    Highly colored, insoluble, powdered substance used to implant color to other materials. White pigments. e.g., titanium dioxide, are dispersed in fiber forming polymers to produce delustered (semidull and dull) fibers
    PIGMENTED YARNS - SEE: Solution Dyed Yarns
    PILE
    The visible wear surface of carpet consisting of yarn tufts in loop and/or cut configuration. Sometimes called "face" or "nap".
    PILE CRUSH
    Loss of pile thickness by compression and bending of tufts caused by traffic and heavy furniture. The tufts collapse into the air space between them. It may be irreversible if the yarn has inadequate resilience, and/or the pile has insufficient density for the traffic load.
    PILE DENSITY- See Density
    PILE(OR TUFT) LENGTH

    The length of the extended tufts measured from the primary backing top surface to their tips. Pile tufts should be gently extended, but not stretched during this measurement.
    PILE REVERSAL
    An irreversible, localized change in the orientation of the pile of a carpet.The phenomenon has different names in different countries. In the U.S., it is often refered to as "watermarking", "pooling", "highlighting", and "shading".
    PILE SETTING
    Carpet cleaning term for the process of erecting the damp and disheveled pile after shampooing by means of a pile brush or pile lifting machine.
    PILE YARN
    The yarn which forms the tufts of the carpet, Also called "face yarn".
    PILLING
    A condition of the carpet face (which may occur from heavy traffic) in which fibers from different tufts become entangled with one another, forming hard masses of fibers and tangled tufts. Pills may be cut off with scissors.
    PILL TEST
    Flammability test for carpet to determine it's ease of ignition by a small incendiary source, i.e., methenamine timed burning tablet, Federal regulations require all carpet sold to pass the pill test (FF1-70).

    PITCH -
    See Gauge
    PLIED YARN
    A yarn composed of two or more single yarns twisted together. Many 2-ply yarns are used in carpet. In cut-pile carpet, e.g. saxony, plied yarns must be heat-set to prevent untwisting under traffic. Multiple, continuous filament yarns made by fiber producers are sometimes air-entangled rather than twisted together.
    PLUSH FINISHING
    A smooth textured carpet surface in which individual tufts are only minimally visible, and the overall visual effect is that of a single level of fiber ends. This finish is normally achieved only on cut-pile carpet produced from non-heat-set spun yarns by brushing and shearing. Sometimes called "velvet-plush".
    PLY

    1) A single-end component in a plied yarn. 2) The number which tells how many single ends have been ply-twisted together to form a plied yarn, e.g.,2-ply or 3-ply.
    POLYESTER
    A fiber-forming, thermoplastic synthetic polymer. Nearly all polyester carpet fiber is staple, and the yarns are spun yarns. Polyester for carpet is made from terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol and is known chemically as polyethylene terephthalate.

    POLYMERS
    High molecular weight, chemical compounds formed by repeated linking of smaller chemical units called monomers. Polymers from which fibers are made are long, chain molecules in which the monomers are linked end-to-end linearly. Synthetic polymers used for carpet fiber include nylon-6, 6 and nylon-6 (polyamides), polyester, polypropylene, and polyacrylonitrile (acrylics). In popular terminology, polymers are also called plastics or resins.

    POLYPROPYLENE
    Synthetic, thermoplastic polymer used for molded items, sheets, films, and fibers. Federal Trade Commission (U.S. Government) classification is olefin. The polymer is made by stereospecific polymerization of polypropylene. Most polypropylene carpet fiber is solution dyed and sometimes contains ultraviolet stabilizers for outdoor use. The carpet fiber is available as both bulked, continuous-filament yarns and staple for spun yarn production. Slit-film polypropylene is used in woven carpet backing.
    POOLING
    SEE Pile Reversal
    POWER STRETCHER
    A carpet installation tool used to stretch carpet for installation on tackless strip. It consists of a pinned plate that grips the carpet, tubular extensions, a padded end which is used to brace against an opposing wall or other structure, and a lever that multiplies the installer's applied stretching force.

    PRIMARY BACKING
    A component of tufted carpet consisting of woven or nonwoven fabric into which pile yarn tufts are inserted by the tufting needles. It is the carrier fabric for the pile yarn, and should not be confused with secondary backing, which is a reinforcing fabric laminated to the back of tufted carpet subsequent to the tufting process. Most primary backing is either woven or nonwoven polypropylene. Some synthetic primary backings have nylon fiber attached to their upper surfaces to make them union dyeable with nylon pile yarns.

    PRIME URETHANE CUSHION
    Separate carpet cushion made from virgin, polypropylene foam. The sheet of foam is cut from large "loaves". As opposed to prime cushion, rebonded polypropylene is made from recovered scrap.

    PRINTED CARPET
    Carpet having colored patterns applied by methods analogous to those used for printing flat textiles and paper. These include flatbed screen printing employing woven fabric screens, rotary screen printing and perforated, sheet steel screens, Stalwart printing employing sponge pattern elements on wooden rollers, and modern, computer programmed, jet printing.

    PUCKERING
    An installation defect in carpet seams in which one side is longer than the adjoining carpet edge. The excess carpet gathers into wrinkles or pleats at the seam.
    .

    Q
    QUARTER
    A woven carpet term that designates the width of narrow carpet. It is one quarter of a yard, or nine inches. At one time most woven carpet was made on narrow looms. Widths of 27 inches and 36 inches were commonly called three-quarter and four-quarter carpet, respectively.

    QUARTER DROP-MATCH
    SEE Match
    QUARTER-ROUND
    Wooden or plastic molding having a cross section comprising a 90 degree arc of a circle. It is used at joints between walls and floors, or between larger moldings and floors.
    R
    RADIANT HEAT
    A living space heating system that uses a grid of pipe or tubing placed in the substrate of the flooring structure, circulation of a heated liquid produces heat within the flooring. This system on heating requires use of extreme caution while installing carpet with any nailing or stapling technique. Care must be taken to avoid puncturing the system and causing a leak.
    RANDOM SHEARED
    A carpet texture created by shearing either level loop or high-low loop carpet lightly sheared areas are less reflective than the unsheared loops, which appear brighter and lighter in color. Random shearing of high-low loop carpet produces a texture somewhat similar to cut and loop.
    REBOND

    See: BONDED URETHANE CUSHION

    REMNANT
    A short piece of carpet roll goods, usually less than nine feet long.
    REPEAT
    The dimensions of the basic pattern unit in any type of patterned carpet including printed, woven, high-low tufted loop, cut and loop, etc. See Match for further discussion.
    RESILIENCE
    Ability of carpet pile or cushion to recover original thickness after being subjected to compressive forces or crushing under traffic.

    RESIST PRINTING
    A technique for producing colored patterns wherein carpet is first printed with colorless chemicals which alter the dye affinity of the printed areas. The printed areas in nylon carpet, for example, may be altered to be light dyeing and/or cationic dyeable relative to the untreated, regular, acid dyeable nylon. Subsequent piece dyeing in a dye beck with appropriately selected dyestuffs produces a colored pattern. In this fashion, numerous colorways may be produced from a single print run.

    RESTRETCH
    A carpet installation term used to describe carpet stretching performed subsequent to original installation to remove wrinkles, bubbles, or loose fit. Most restretching is caused by failure of the installer to adequately stretch the carpet during original installation. Restretching should be performed with power stretchers and not with knee kickers. This is true of all stretching operations in overpad, tackless strip installations.

    RISER
    The vertical or front surface of a step, rising from the back of the tread.

    ROTARY BRUSHING
    A carpet cleaning technique in which a detergent solution is worked into the pile by a motor-driven brush. Loosened soil and spent solution is often subsequently removed by vacuum.
    ROUND WIRE OR LOOPED PILE
    A Wilton or velvet carpet woven with the pile yarn uncut. See Loop Pile
    ROWS OR WIRES
    In Woven carpet this is the number of pile yarn tufts per running inch lengthwise. Called "rows" in Axminster and "wires" in Wilton and velvet carpet. Analogous to "stitches per inch" in tufted carpet.
    RUBBER
    A term sometimes applied to carpet cushion made from rubber (foam or sponge), and used for both separate and attached cushion.
    RUG
    Carpet cut into room or area dimensions and loose laid.
    S
    SAXONY
    A cut pile carpet texture consisting of heat set plied yarns in a relatively dense, erect configuration, with well defined individual tuft tips. Tip definition is more pronounced than in a singles plush.
    SCALE DRAWING
    A drawing, such as a building blueprint, having it's measurements in fixed proportion to the actual dimensions of the room, floor, or building depicted. A typical scale might be "one quarter inch to the foot." On such a drawing, each quarter inch of linear dimension represents one foot of linear dimension in the actual structure.
    SCRIBING
    An installation term for the method of transferring the exact irregularities of a wall, floor, or other surface onto a piece of carpet by tracing technique. The carpet is then cut to fit exactly.
    SCULPTURED
    Any carpet pattern formed from high and low areas, such as high-low loop or cut and loop.
    SEAMS
    See: BACK SEAMS, FACE SEAMS, CROSS SEAMS, SIDE SEAMS
    SECONDARY BACKING
    Woven or nonwoven fabric reinforcement laminated to the backing of a tufted carpet, usually with latex adhesive, to enhance dimensional stability, strength, stretch resistance, lay-flat stiffness, and hand. Most secondary backings are woven jute, woven polypropylene, or nonwoven polypropylene. The term is sometimes used in a broader sense to include attached cushion and other polymeric back coatings. Because secondary backing is visible under the pile yarn in finished carpet, most dealers and installers refer to the secondary backing simply as "backing".
    SECONDS
    Off-quality, defective, or substandard carpet normally sold at substantial price discounts as "seconds" or "imperfects" by manufacturers.
    SELF-TONE
    A pattern of two or more shades of the same color. When two shades are used in a pattern or design, it is called "two-tone".
    SELVEGES
    Carpet edges at sides of rolls
    SERGING
    A method of finishing edges of area rugs cut from roll goods by use of heavy, colored yarn sewn around the edges in close, overcast stitch.
    SET or DROP MATCH
    See: MATCH
    SEWING POLE
    Any piece of wood or other material ,more or less rounded, over which carpet may be laid in order to facilitate sewing and other related operations. Most installers prefer a wooden pole about 4 inches in diameter that has been slightly flattened on one side.
    SHADING
    A change in appearance of a carpet due to localized distortions in the orientation of the fibers, tufts, or loops. Shading is not a change in color or hue, but a difference in light reflection. Sometimes refered to as "temporary shading", "tracking", or "pile reversal". See: PILE REVERSAL
    SHAG
    A carpet texture characterized by long tufts laid over in random directions in such a manner that the sides of the yarn form the traffic surface. Modern shags are made from plied, heat set yarns and are either cut pile or cut and loop styles.
    SHEARING
    Carpet manufacturing process for producing a smooth carpet face, removing fuzz, or creating random sheared textures. Carpet shears have many steel blades mounted on rotating cylinders that cut fibers on carpet surfaces in a manner analogous to a lawn mower cutting grass. Depth of shearing may be indicated by a modifying word, e.g. , defuzz and tip-shear suggest a shallow cut of the shear, whereas a full-shear would imply a deep cut as used for producing mirror-finished plush.
    SHED
    A weaving term describing the space between warp yarns (created by alternate raising and lowering of the loom harness) in which the fill yarn is carried by the shuttle or other fill insertion device.
    SHORT ROLL
    A length of carpet roll goods shorter than a full shipping roll and longer than a remnant. Depending on carpet mill quality standards, it may be from 20 to 40 feet long. Shorts are usually sold by mills at substantial discounts from first quality, full roll mill prices, but higher than second quality prices.
    SHUTTLE
    Part of a weaving loom that carries fill yarn back and forth across the fabric width. In conventional looms, it contains a spool of fill yarn called a bobbin.
    SIDE SEAMS
    Seams running the length of the carpet. Sometimes called length seams.
    SKEIN DYED YARN
    Pile yarn dyed while in the form of large. loosely wound skeins.
    SOIL RESIST TREATMENT
    Application of a chemical agent, which gives low surface energy properties to carpet face fiber to inhibit wetting of the fibers by oil or water based materials. Treatments are usually fluoro-chemically based.
    SOLUTION DYED FIBER
    Synthetic fiber colored by pigments dispersed in the polymer melt or solution prior to extrusion into fiber. Sometimes referred to as dope dyed or spun dyed
    SPACE DYED
    Yarn dyed two or more colors that alternate along the length.
    SPINNING
    A term for yarn or fiber production. To the fiber manufacturer, spinning is synonymous with extrusion of polymer through the small holes of the spinneret into synthetic fiber.To the conventional textile yarn mill, spinning is the conversion of staple fiber into spun yarn.
    SPONGE CUSHION
    Carpet cushion of rubber foam material that is chemically blown to form a cushion product.
    SPROUTING
    Protrusion of individual tuft or yarn ends above the pile surface. May be clipped with scissors.
    SPUN-DYED FIBER
    See: SOLUTION DYED FIBER
    STAIN
    Foreign material (soil, liquids, etc.) on carpet that is not removable by standard cleaning methods.
    STAIN RESIST TREATMENT
    Chemical treatment, primarily for nylon carpet, to minimize stains from food colors. Chemical stain resist treatments are not commonly used for commercial carpet.
    STAPLE FIBER
    Short lengths of fiber, which may be converted into spun yarns by textile yarn spinning processes. Also called "staple". Staple may also be converted directly into nonwoven fabrics, such as needle-punched carpet. For carpet yarns spun on the common, modified, worsted systems, most staple is six to eight inches long.
    STATIC SHOCK
    Discharge of electrostatic potential from carpet to person to conductive ground, e.g., a doorknob. Shoe friction against carpet fiber causes production of electrostatic charge. Various static control systems and finishes are used for contract carpet to dissipate static charge before it builds to the human sensitivity threshold.
    STAY TACKING
    A carpet installation term for temporarily nailing or tacking the stretch until the entire installation is stretched over and fastened onto the tackless strip. An important technique in large contract installations, which are too large to stretch in one step.
    STEP RETURN
    A term for that part of a staircase tread which extends over the riser. Also known as a bullnoses or extended nosing.
    STIFFNESS
    Resistance of material, such as carpet, to bending.
    STITCHES
    Stitches per inch. Number of yarn tufts per running inch of a single tuft row in tufted carpet.
    STITCH LENGTH
    Total length of yarn from which a tuft is made. It is numerically equal to twice the pile height plus the associated back stitch behind the primary backing.
    STOCK DYED YARN
    Colored spun yarn produced from fibers dyed in staple form. The term does not encompass yarns spun from solution-dyed staple.
    STOP MARKS
    Widthwise, mechanical, pile imperfections in tufted carpet. Usually caused by improper stop and start techniques by the machine operator.
    STREAK
    Any lengthwise, narrow, visual defect in carpet. Dye streaks may be caused by a single pile end having different dye affinity from the others. Other streaks may be yarn defects, such as tight twist, stretched yarn, or yarns larger or smaller than the others.
    STRETCH
    A carpet installation term for the amount of elongation of carpet when it is stretched over cushion onto tackless strip. Generally one to two percent.
    STRETCH-IN
    Installation procedure for installing carpet over separate cushion using a tackless strip.
    STUFFER
    A backing yarn in woven carpet. Stuffers are, normally, large warp yarns (lengthwise yarns) which increase weight, strength, hand, stiffness, and stability.
    SWATCH
    A small carpet sample. Carpet specifiers should retain swatches to verify color, texture, weight, and other quality factors when carpet is delivered.
    T
    TACKLESS STRIP
    Wood or metal strips fastened to the floor near the walls of a room containing either two or three rows of pins angled toward the walls on which the carpet backing is stretched and secured in a stretch-in installation.
    TAK DYEING
    A continuous dyeing process for producing random, multicolor patterns, which are usually less sharply defined than printed patterns. Colored dye liquor is applied to the carpet in a controlled pattern of droplets.
    TEMPLATE
    A paper or cardboard pattern used by installers as a guide for cutting carpet for areas having complicated or unusual shapes.
    TENSILE STRENGTH
    The greatest stretching force a yarn, fabric, or carpet can bear without breaking.
    TEXTURE
    Visual and tactile surface characteristic of carpet pile, including such aesthetic and structural elements as high-low or cut and loop patterning, yarn twist, pile erectness or lay-over, harshness or softness to the touch, luster and yarn dimensions.
    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
    Ability of a material to transmit heat. Good insulators, including some carpet, have high thermal resistivity (R-value) and low thermal conductivity.
    THRESHOLD
    The raised board beneath a door. Also know as a "sill" or "saddle".
    TIP SHEARING
    Light, shallow shearing to add surface interest to carpet texture or to clean up and defuzz during carpet finishing.
    TONE ON TONE
    A carpet pattern made by using two or more shades of the same color.
    TOP COLORS
    In printed or woven colored patterns, top colors are the ones forming the pattern elements, as distinguished from the background or ground colors.
    TOTAL WEIGHT
    Weight per square yard of the total carpet pile, yarn, primary backing and secondary backings, and coatings.
    TRAFFIC
    The passing back and forth of persons over a given carpet surface area.
    TREAD
    The upper, horizontal part of a step.
    TUFT BIND
    Force required to pull a tuft from the carpet.
    TUFTED CARPET
    Carpet manufactured by the tufting process, which comprises insertion of the pile tufts by a row of eyed needles, which penetrate a primary backing fabric, thus forming tufts from the yarn threaded through the eyes of the tufting needles.
    TUFTS
    The cut or uncut loops of a pile fabric
    TWIST
    The number of turns about it's axis per unit length observed in a yarn. Twist direction is either right or left handed, also called "Z-twist" or "S-twist". Carpet yarns usually have rather low twists, in the 2.5 to 6.0 turns per inch (TPI) range, with the majority in the 3.5 to 5.0 TPI range.
    TWIST CARPET
    Carpet having a pile texture created with tightly twisted yarns in which the ply twist is substantially greater than the singles twist, causing yarn to curl. Most twist styles are cut pile, and the unbalanced, hard twist causes a nubby texture.
    TWO-TONE
    A design or pattern obtained by using two shades of the same color.
    U
    Underlay
    See: CARPET CUSHION
    UNITARY CARPET
    Carpet used for glue-down installations which has an application of high quality backcoating latex to increase tuft bind performance properties without the addition of a secondary backing.
    V

    VELVET CARPET
    Carpet woven on a velvet loom. Velvet carpet is typically cut pile or level loop in solid or tweed colorings, though textured and patterned effects are possible.
    VELVET FINISH
    A smooth surface texture on a dense plush carpet.
    VINYL
    Colloquial term for the synthetic polymer, poly vinyl chloride (PVC). PVC is used as a carpet backcoating for marine and outdoor use. PVC foams can be used as attached cushion. Many walk-off mats have solid, sheet vinyl backings. Carpet modules are often PVC backed.
    W
    WARP
    A weaving term for yarns that run lengthwise in woven fabrics and carpets. Warp yarns are usually delivered to the loom from a beam, a large spool with hundreds of ends of yarn wound around it, mounted behind the loom. Woven carpets usually have three sets of warp yarns, which may be wound on three loom beams. These include stuffer warp for lengthwise strength and stiffness, pile warp, which forms the carpet surface tufts, and chain warp, which interlaces with fill yarn to lock the structure together.
    WARP PILE
    In woven carpet, the pile formed by the warp yarns
    WATERMARKING
    See: PILE REVERSAL
    WEAVING
    A fabric formation process used for manufacturing carpet in which yarns are interlaced to form a cloth. The weaving loom interlaces lengthwise (warp) and widthwise (filling) yarns. Carpet weaves are complex, often involving several sets of warp and filling yarns. See: AXMINSTER, WILTON, and VELVET
    WEFT
    Yarn which runs widthwise in woven cloth or carpet, interlacing with the warp yarns. See: FILLING YARN
    WILTON CARPET
    Carpet woven on a loom with a Jacquard mechanism, which utilizes a series of punched cards to select pile height and yarn color. The Wilton loom can produce carpet with a complex multicolor patterns and highly textured pile surfaces of multilevel cut and looped yarn.
    WIRE HEIGHT
    In woven carpet, the height of the pile tuft is determined by the wire height. See: WIRES
    WIRES
    Component of a carpet weaving loom on which the pile tufts are formed. Round wires produce loop pile carpet, and flat wires with sharp blades produce cut pile (plush) textures.
    WOOLEN SYSTEM YARN
    Spun yarn, composed of any natural or synthetic fiber, manufactured by the woolen-system spinning process. Compared to worsted-system or parallel-spun yarns, which are common to most tufted carpet, woolen yarns are soft bulky, and hairy. Staple for woolen spinning is short, in the 3.5 to 5.5 inch range.
    WORSTED YARN
    Spun yarn, composed of any natural or synthetic fiber, manufacture by the worsted or parallel spinning process. Most yarns for tufted carpet are parallel spun. Staple for worsted spinning is long, often in the 6 to 8 inch range. In worsted yarns, the fibers are relatively parallel, and the yarns are relatively smooth and compact in structure.
    WOVEN BACKING
    A tufted carpet term for primary or secondary backing manufactured by the weaving process. Secondary backings are usually woven jute or woven polypropylene. Primary backings are usually woven (or nonwoven) polypropylene.
    WOVEN CARPET
    Carpet produced on a loom through a weaving process by which the lengthwise (warp) yarns and widthwise (weft or filling) yarns are interlaced to form the fabric. Carpet weaves - such as Wilton, Axminster, and velvet - are complex, often involving several sets of warp and filling yarns for the pile and backing.
    XYZ
    YARN
    A continuous strand composed of fibers or filaments and used in tufting, weaving, and knitting to forms carpets and other fabrics. Carpet yarn is often plied and may be either spun or continuous filament.
    YARN DYEING
    Dyeing yarn before tufting or weaving it into a carpet.
    YARN PLY
    The number of singles yarns in ply-twisted together to form a plied yarn.
    YARN SIZE
    Same as yarn count. See: COUNT

    :eek: JD
     
  5. cproader

    cproader All over T's last nerve Senior Member

    :eek:..........:zzz:.............:hmmm:.............:zzz:
     
  6. Taurus Flooring

    Taurus Flooring Over 30yrs Experience

    you forgot RESTRETCH:an attempt to finally make it lie flat
     
  7. rusty baker

    rusty baker Well-Known Member

    How about FUZZY SIDE the one that goes up.
     
  8. Demonseed

    Demonseed Pro Member

    I am starting to think there are way too many terms to describe things.
     
  9. Darian Brown

    Darian Brown Charter Member

    I know a guy that call a stair tool a tire tool. One meaning and everyone learn it.
     
  10. jscherer3608

    jscherer3608 Pro Member

    I have guys in my are call it a "wedge" or a "tucker"
     
  11. cproader

    cproader All over T's last nerve Senior Member

    :eek:...Well welcome aboard j, and we are all ears if ya got some trade talkin to do. Tell somethin about yerself. :welcome:
     
  12. Nascenta

    Nascenta Pro Member

    I've read the term, 'side stripping', with respect to installing carpeting on stairs. I can guess what it means but an entry on the glossary would be useful.
     
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